Climate change is becoming increasingly evident and is caused by the large quantities of greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere by human activities, such as burning fossil fuels for electricity generation, heating and transport. One of the most serious consequences is the destruction of the ozone layer, which leads to an increase in the earth’s temperature and the production of extreme weather phenomena, but it is not the only one.


To curb this situation, the EU has set a series of targets for 2030 to move towards a low or zero carbon economy and thus achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% by 2050.

In the fight against climate change, the use of renewable energies plays a fundamental role. These sources of energy generation are clean and inexhaustible resources that, unlike fossil fuels, do not produce greenhouse gases or polluting emissions.

According to the International Renewable Energy Agency, IRENA, doubling the share of renewables in the global energy mix to 32% by 2030 would result in a 3.7% increase in welfare.

In 2015, world leaders adopted a series of global goals (SDGs – Sustainable Development Goals) with the aim of eradicating poverty, protecting the planet and improving citizens’ rights. Renewable energy is SDG 7, which aims to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all.

When we talk about renewable energies we can highlight:

Wind energy: is that which harnesses the energy of the wind by means of wind turbines or windmills. The wind turbine is the main element of this renewable energy system, the most common being the one that converts the energy from the movement of the air into electrical energy that is finally transmitted to the electricity grid.

Solar energy: it is obtained directly from the sun and can be solar photovoltaic, solar thermal or solar thermoelectric, depending on the exploitation mechanism used, heat or electricity can be obtained.

Hydropower: This type of renewable energy uses the movement of water to generate electricity.

Geothermal energy: this energy harnesses heat from within the earth’s crust. According to the FAO, this type of energy can be very beneficial in developing countries, as it can be used for drying food or pasteurising and sterilising milk.

Biomass: The generation of energy from organic waste is another renewable energy source, in this case linked to gas and electricity.

Tidal energy: tidal energy is energy that harnesses the power of the tides or waves to produce energy.

Will renewable energies be able to transport us to a new scenario?