Wave energy is energy that harnesses the kinetic energy of waves produced on the surface of the sea by the wind to generate electricity. It is also known as wave power.


Wave energy is a type of energy that is still underdeveloped but has many advantages, including the fact that it is renewable and clean, so it does not pollute. On the other hand, however, one of the disadvantages is that both the installations and the distribution of the energy generated are very expensive.

Several systems have been devised to obtain this type of energy. The most common consists of a series of buoys that transmit the movement produced by the waves to turbines, which are generally placed on the seabed in the following way:

  1. Buoys are placed in the sea, which are responsible for transmitting the force of the waves to turbines.
  2. By means of air chambers into which the waves enter, the water level is raised, which generates a compression effect of the air inside.
  3. The air is expelled upwards, hitting the turbine.
  4. With the force created by the turbines, electricity is generated.

Another type of installation that we can mention for obtaining this energy is from “articulated sea serpents”. This system consists of a 150-metre-long floating structure with several hinged sections that are placed parallel to each other in the direction of the wave. The resulting movement drives a hydraulic system that pumps oil to turn electric generators.

There are three types of wave energy, which are defined according to the equipment used to generate it:

  • Near-shore equipment: the energy is produced close to the breaker. They are located on the bottom or on the surface, floating.
  • Equipment embedded in the shore: they can be located in or out of the water.
  • Offshore equipment: they use highly powerful wave profiles, as well as high energy densities.

Finally, it should be noted that wave energy generates minimal environmental impact, both visually and in terms of noise.

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