Geothermal is a form of renewable energy that harnesses heat stored in the Earth’s interior to generate electricity or provide heating and cooling. In Spain, geothermal energy can be obtained from a minimum depth of 1.5 m. Thanks to existing technologies, it is possible to convert geothermal energy into usable heat without negative effects on the climate.


The way geothermal energy works is very simple. Through the use  of heat pumps and the help of an exchanger, the temperature of the ground is transmitted to the homes. In winter, the pump absorbs heat  from the ground and releases it into the building and in summer the opposite process occurs, it absorbs the heat from the building and transfers it to the ground. All with the same installation.

There are two main ways to take advantage of geothermal:

  1. Geothermal Electricity Generation: In this application, deep wells are drilled into the Earth to reach areas where the temperature is significantly higher than at the surface. Heat is collected by geothermal fluids (usually water) and used to produce steam that drives an electricity-generating turbine. This method is used in geothermal plants.
  2. Geothermal heating and cooling: In this application, geothermal heat pumps are used to transfer heat from the subsurface to a building in winter and move heat away from the building underground in summer to provide efficient heating and cooling. This is done through a system of pipes buried in the ground that circulate geothermal fluid.

Geothermal energy has several advantages and disadvantages that vary depending on its application:

Some of the advantages we can mention are:

  • It is a renewable energy source that does not depend on weather conditions.
  • Geothermal heating and cooling systems are highly efficient, as they take advantage of the constant heat from underground.
  • Reduces dependence on fossil fuels.
  • In an energy that can be produced locally, reducing the need to import energy

On the other hand, some of the disadvantages are:

  • Not all regions have access to adequate geothermal resources.
  • Installing geothermal systems can be expensive.
  • If not properly managed, the local geothermal resource can be depleted over time.

Although geothermal energy is a renewable energy source  with many advantages and on the rise, its viability depends largely on geographical location.